EIA Country Report for Guatemala

Legal Framework
State, Country or Province: 
Guatemala
EIA law: 
Decreto Número 68-86 Ley de Protección y Mejoramiento del Medio Ambiente
EIA Regulations: 
Acuerdo Gubernativo 431-2007, Reglamento de Evaluación, Control y Seguimiento Ambiental
EIA Guidelines or Other Guidance: 
Manual de Procedimientos de Evaluación Ambiental de Proyectos, Obras o Actividades en las Delegaciones Departamentales (Manual of Environmental Assessment Procedures for Regional Offices)
EIA Procedure
Projects Requiring EIA: 
Government projects
Projects Requiring EIA: 
Private projects
Abridged Assessments: 
Yes
Assessments Detail: 
Projects classified in the lower impact category only need to present an Evaluación Ambiental Inicial or Autoevaluation (the document presented for screening and scoping in the full EIA process). The authority will issue its authorization on the basis of this document. EIA Regulations, Article 32
Best Practices in Lieu of EIA: 
No
Who Conducts Screening: 
Government
Who Conducts Screening Detail: 
The authority makes screening decisions on the basis of an Initial Environmental Assessment (Evaluación Ambiental Inicial) document. EIA Regulations, Article 15
Criteria for Screening: 
List or appendix of project or activity types
Criteria for Screening: 
Possible impact to, or adjacent to, a protected area
Criteria for Screening Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Article 12; Acuerdo Gubernativo No 134-2005, Article 1
Who Prepares EIA: 
Project Proponent (with or without contractor)
Who Pays for EIA: 
Project Proponent
EIA Contractor Qualifications: 
Yes
EIA Contractor Qualifications Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Article 82
Conflict of Interest: 
No
Terms of Reference (TOR): 
Yes
Terms of Reference Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Articles 30 and 31
Days for Decisionmaker Review: 
30-90 days (depending on project classification)
Automatic Approval: 
Yes
Automatic Approval Detail: 
The developer has to request this type of approval, and the project must not produce environmental harm, must not pose a high environmental risk and must not be considered as environmental unfeasible. In such cases the Ministry will issue a "Conditioned" authorization, which it can revoke or suspend if the project produces environmental damages. EIA Regulations, Article 100
Written Decision: 
Yes
Authority to Impose Conditions: 
Yes
Authority to Impose Conditions Details: 
EIA Regulations, Article 25
Expiry of Decision: 
Variable (specified in authorization)
Expiry of Decision Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Article 49
Financial Assurances or Bond: 
Yes
Financial Assurances Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Article 63. Only projects under category "C", which do not present a full EIA are exempted from this requirement. EIA Regulations, Article 64.
EIA Content
Interdisciplinary Team: 
No
Interdisciplinary Team Detail: 
This criteria is not addressed in the EIA law or regulations
Range of Alternatives: 
Yes
Range of Alternatives Detail: 
The EIA must present the practical alternatives to the proposed action. EIA Regulations, Article 15
No Action Alternative: 
No
Type(s) of Impact Analysis: 
Direct environmental impacts
Type(s) of Impact Analysis: 
Social impacts
Type(s) of Impact Analysis: 
Cultural impacts
Type(s) of Impact Analysis: 
Economic impacts
Mitigation: 
Yes
Mitigation Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Article 17
Monitoring Plans: 
Sometimes
Monitoring Plans Detail: 
The authority has discretion to decide whether to require a monitoring plan to be prepared. EIA Regulations Article 22.
Access to Information
Public Notice of Draft EIA: 
Yes
Draft EIA Available: 
Yes
Draft EIA Available Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Article 75
Draft EIA Locations: 
Agency or ministry office
Draft EIA Locations: 
Local government office
Public Notice of Final EIA: 
No
Final EIA Available: 
No
Final EIA Locations: 
Not Available
Availability of Reference Studies: 
No
Public Notice of Final Decision: 
Yes
Public Notice of Final Decision Detail: 
The Ministry provides notice of its decision to people who presented comments. EIA Regulations, Article 78. The Ministry's EIA website has a "status" label which shows which projects have been approved. The Regulations do not declare whether public notice of decisions must be provided generally (e.g. to members of the public who did not submit comments).
Public Participation
Public Scoping: 
Yes
Public Scoping Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Articles 72, 75
Public Review of TOR: 
No
Public Participation Opportunities: 
Scoping
Public Participation Opportunities: 
Review of draft EIA
Public Participation Opportunities: 
Public meetings and/or public hearings
Public Participation Opportunities: 
Review of final EIA
Public Meetings: 
Yes
Public Meetings Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Article 74
Public Input at Meeting: 
Yes
Public Input at Meeting Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Article 74
Criteria to Hold Public Meeting: 
Public meeting and/or hearing is automatically required
Days for Public to Review Draft EIA: 
20 days
Public Comments on Draft EIA: 
Yes
Public Comments on Draft EIA Detail: 
EIA Regulations, Articles 74 & 76
Public Comments on Final EIA: 
No
Response to Public Comments: 
Yes
Response to Public Comments Detail: 
The Authority must take into account comments with sound legal, scientific or technical basis. It will notify its decision to the people who sent comments. EIA Regulations, Article 78 as reformed by Acuerdo Gubernativo No 89-2008. http://www.marn.gob.gt/sub/portal_sao/documents/leyes/gub-89-08.pdf
Facilitation of Public Participation: 
Yes
Facilitation of Public Participation Detail: 
EIA documents must be translated into local languages. EIA Regulations, Article 75
Judicial Review/Enforcement
Citizen Administrative Review: 
Yes
Citizen Administrative Review Detail: 
This topic is not discussed in the EIA law or regulations, but may be governed by the General Administrative Process Act. The Act recognizes the right of administrative review for involved parties inside an administrative process and for interested parties. It is possible that affected communities and individuals who commented on a project would be considered "interested parties." See Articles 10 and 22 of the Act. http://www.marn.gob.gt/aplicaciones/normas10g/pdf/125.pdf
Citizen Judicial Review: 
No
Project Monitoring: 
Yes
Project Monitoring Detail: 
The Ministry can require a monitoring plan or it can carry out independent monitoring activities. EIA Regulations, Articles 22 and 24 .
Enforceability of EIA Detail: 
Unclear. The EIA regulations only establish that the public can participate during the operational phase of a project. It does not define this participation in detail. EIA Regulations, Article 73.
Enforceability of Permit Detail: 
Unclear. The EIA regulations only establish that the public can participate during the operational phase of a project. It does not define this participation in detail. EIA Regulations, Article 73.
   Updated 6 Jul, 2015